New cell type discovered in human skin to contribute to inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis and psoriasis
A team of international scientists and clinical experts have discovered a new type of cell in human skin that contributes to inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (PSO). The results of their study were published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine in September 2021. The team is from A * STAR’s Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), in collaboration with the Skin Research Institute of Singapore (SRIS), the Singapore National Skin Center, Department of Dermatology. , Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, and industry partner Galderma.
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as AD and PSO are characterized by the presence of activated T cell subtypes secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines in the skin. This T-cell mediated immune disruption is central to the pathogenesis of a wide range of inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, understanding the factors modulating the initiation and activation of T cells in healthy and diseased skin is essential to develop effective treatments for these diseases.
Recently, a single-celled RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach has been used to analyze human skin immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, which are cell populations controlling the activation of human skin cells. T lymphocytes. To address the role of DCs and macrophages in chronic inflammatory skin diseases, the team used a combination of complex approaches (single cell flow cytometry and RNA-seq of cells sorted by skin index healthy and sick human) to generate an impartial profile. landscape of DCs and macrophages, and to describe their distinct molecular signatures and proportions in skin lesions of patients with AD and PSO.
This revealed a significant enrichment in the proportion of CD14 + DC3 in the skin of PSO lesions, where they were one of the main cell types co-expressing IL1B and IL23A, two cytokines essential for the pathogenesis of PSO. This finding suggests that targeting CD14 + DC3 could represent a new therapeutic option in the treatment of PSO, and demonstrates the potential of the unicellular myeloid cell landscape database to provide important information on skin biology in the disease. health and disease.
Dr Florent Ginhoux, Principal Investigator, SIgN and final study author, said: “The results of this study are important as they will allow the design of new strategies to target or modulate myeloid cell populations for better results. health care for patients with atopic dermatitis. and psoriasis.
“The roles of antigen presenting cells in the development of inflammatory skin diseases remain unclear. This study clearly revealed the functions of each subset of antigen presenting cells, which is very informative and valuable for understanding the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We anticipate that this study will lead to the design of a new treatment for refractory inflammatory skin diseases. said Professor Kenji Kabashima, Deputy Principal Investigator of SIgN and SRIS.
More information about the study, “Single-cell analysis of human skin identifies CD14 + type 3 dendritic cells co-producing IL1B and IL23A in psoriasis” can be found in the article published by the team in the Journal of Experimental Medicine: https: // pubmed. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34279540/
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